Departmental News

Music vital for transitioning through the day in lockdown

Music is used as a tool to manage transitions between working, relaxing and socialising from home, new research from Goldsmiths, University of London suggests.

Commissioned by Google Nest, research by Dr Diana Omigie reveals how music is being used to transition through daily activities and mood states during the extended period of home lockdown. 

The study revealed that in over 40% of episodes in which people were listening to music, management of mood and energy levels were given as a reason for listening.

Music listening was most associated with better moods when people were waking up and getting ready for the day and during transitions into activities like socialising, play, and exercise. During the week, using music for aesthetic pleasure and to create the right atmosphere peaked after 5pm when the working day for most was over. 

The results showed that mood peaked between 5 – 8pm during the working day, and between 2 – 5pm at weekends when people were engaged in recreational activities. These time periods coincided with the moments in which people were most likely to have reported listening to music to change their mood and energy levels.

The study found that pop music was the most popular genre listened to across the whole day. However, people’s attention to different musical features hinted at how music was being used differently over the course of the day. Following a tendency to focus on melody first thing in the morning, temporal aspects of the music ‘beat, tempo, rhythm’ were attended to most prominently from noon to early evening. Movie soundtracks and ambient music, which were barely listened to during the day, were the second most popular genre post-8pm. 

Dr Omigie, a cognitive neuroscientist and course leader for the MSc Music, Mind and Brain in the Department of Psychology at Goldsmiths, surveyed more than 200 people over five days at the beginning of May 2020. Participants came from a range of age groups, employment statuses, living situations other demographic backgrounds. 

Participants were questioned four times a day at random intervals about a range of aspects of life in lockdown, covering their mood, activities, sounds they could hear, if music was present and how and where they listened to it. 

The research set out to discover how the use of music and its effects changes over the course of a day as people transition between different activities, exploring how this maps to different areas of the home. 

The results showed that people were exercising more at weekends than during the week, and that exercise was the time they reported the greatest control over what they were listening to. Synchronising our body to music during exercise can help exertion feel a bit more effortless prior research has shown, while music during exercise also increases pain control and raises feelings of empowerment and self-esteem.

Cooking was the time people were most likely to be listening to music. Dr Omigie explains: “We may listen to music during mundane tasks for the company music offers. We have a tendency to engage empathy processes when listening to music and we may conceptualise music as a companion. 

“Cooking and housework are not activities that tend to use up a lot of our cognitive resources so we have some to spare during these activities. Music offers cognitive stimulation because it is information that we are constantly processing and constantly trying to making sense of.”

Accompanying the study was a consumer survey of 2,500 people which gave a wider breadth of insight into the nation’s mood. The Google Nest survey found that 63% of Brits are not feeling relaxed at home and are relying on music to create different atmospheres. 

Google Nest produce smart speakers which can be controlled by voice from different rooms, and play music from online providers.

Nest Sessions – a mood-lifting music experience inspired by psychology takes place online this Bank Holiday (23 – 25 May). For more information on Nest Sessions and how to tune in, please visit the Google Store here. To tune in via your Nest smart speaker, just say ‘Hey Google, talk to Nest Sessions’. 

 

Study explores how anxiety impacts on learning new movements

New research from Goldsmiths, University of London and the University of Birmingham shows how anxiety negatively affects our ability to learn new motor skills.

It is well established that feeling anxious can hinder how well someone performs a task – a phenomenon known as “choking under pressure” – but it remains unclear exactly how this happens. 

Dr Maria Del Carmen Herrojo Ruiz and PhD students Thomas Hein and Sebastian Sporn designed a series of experiments for 60 individuals, who had no musical training. Participants were split into three groups, with each group asked to learn short sequences of notes on a digital piano under different conditions. 

The team measured how the performances of those learning in an anxious state differed from those who were not anxious while learning, and recorded which areas of the brain were activated by anxiety at different times.

First, in the ‘exploration’ phase, all participants had to play a piano sequence using any timing they liked and were encouraged to explore different rhythms. Then, in the ‘learning’ phase, all participants were rewarded with a higher score the closer they got to playing new notes with a certain rhythm, without being told that this was their specific goal. 

The team wanted to test whether trying out more different rhythms during the exploration phase would improve their learning abilities in the next phase, when they had to use the scores to find the target movement. 

To see how anxiety affected performance, one group was told in the initial exploration phase that they would have to give a public talk after they completed the piano task, which reliably made them more anxious. A second group were told about the anxiety-inducing public speaking only during the learning phase. The third group (the controls) were not aware of any public speaking task.

Participants who were made anxious during the exploration phase scored fewer points and were less likely to learn the piano sequence in the learning phase. They also varied their movements less in the first phase.

As a follow-up, the research team repeated the experiment with 26 people but without the initial exploration phase. This time the anxious participants were less able to learn the piano sequence and scored fewer points. This suggests that the initial exploration in the previous experiment had enabled later anxious participants to succeed in the learning phase despite being anxious.

The team interprets these findings as an indication that exploring our movements in a new setting when we are not anxious can be beneficial for later, when we must follow a very specific training scheme to reach a specific goal. 

Electroencephalography (or EEG) imaging technology was used to record brain activity during the study. The researchers observed differences in participants with and without anxiety, particularly when they received their scores at the end of the test. The EEG signals showed that anxiety altered rhythmic patterns of brain activity called “sensorimotor beta oscillations”, which are known to be involved in both movement and learning.

Dr Herrojo Ruiz, Senior Lecturer in the Department of Psychology at Goldsmiths, said: “Our findings support the idea that people learn better if they are able to explore and experiment first.”

“Anxious individuals are known to exhibit an intolerance of uncertainty, which contributes to excessive worry.  Anxiety states also lead to more ritualistic behaviour, characterised by movement redundancy, repetition, and rigidity. This study shows that those features of anxiety can decrease people’s flexibility to adapt to changes in a task structure during learning, by making their adaptations more constrained and conservative – none of which is helpful for learning new movements.”

Alterations in the amplitude and burst rate of beta oscillations impair reward – dependent motor learning in anxiety by Sebastian Sporn, Thomas Hein and Maria Herrojo Ruiz is published in the open access journal eLife on Tuesday 19 May 2020: https://doi.org/10.7554/eLife.50654

 

 

How to sleep through a global pandemic

Professor of Psychology Alice Gregory is an expert in sleep and its associated difficulties and a member of the Pediatric Sleep Council.

Ahead of the release of the new paperback edition of her popular-science book Nodding Off: The Science of Sleep from Cradle to Grave we asked Professor Gregory how sleep and sleep research has been impacted by the Covid-19 pandemic. 

Sarah Cox: How has two months of lockdown impacted people’s sleep health?

Alice Gregory: Covid-19 is so new that published data are only beginning to emerge about sleep and the pandemic – but there are certainly lots of hypotheses. Social media tells us that many people are reporting many changes to their usual sleep patterns. The situation we find ourselves in at the moment seems to impact almost every aspect of life, including factors affecting sleep such as exposure to bright light, the consistency of our routines, the amount of exercise we are getting and our stress levels.

Some people are reporting waking during the night, which could be because of the anxieties they may have; or perhaps because they are trying to get more sleep than they might need. Others, who struggle to get enough sleep under usual circumstances, perhaps because of long commutes, a demanding work schedule or busy social life, may have new-found opportunity to sleep. 

Some are reporting odd dreams too, and there are many possible explanations for this. For example, we need to wake up in order to remember a dream – so increased night waking or more relaxed starts to the day may help to explain why dreams are being recalled more than usual. 

SC: It’s been a time of huge upheaval for children, with most unable to go to school or see friends. How might this have affected their sleep?

AG: Lockdown has had the potential to impact sleep for better and for worse. As with adults, a reduction in sunlight exposure, an irregular routine, and increased stress levels can all negatively impact sleep in children too. Other factors could have an effect on sleep too – such as an increased use of electronics, which can be particularly problematic when present in the pre-sleep period.

But there are also potential up-sides of this situation for sleep too. As discussed in Nodding Off, for many years there have been campaigns around the world arguing for school to start later in the day for adolescents. This is because we see a change in sleep timing during this stage of life – where sleep timing becomes later. This change appears to be associated with puberty, occurs internationally and is also found in some other mammals. In line with this, adolescents may find it difficult to fall asleep early, which can mean that under normal circumstances the wake time necessary for the school day is problematic. 

This situation can also contribute towards ‘social jetlag’ where sleep timing shifts between week days and weekends and has been linked to multiple problems. The increase in home-learning associated with the pandemic means that some adolescents now have greater flexibility in setting their sleep timing and schedules to be more in line with their own biological rhythms. However, schedules should not shift too late – as this could result in problems when school resumes. 

SC: Can you share some advice for parents, to help their child’s sleep? 

AG: My top tips include establishing a consistent routine (ensuring that the family wakes up at the same time every day, for example) and not letting bedtime become too late. It can also be useful to avoid screen time – particularly before bedtime and to discourage children from working in bed so that space does not become associated with arousal. Getting exposure to bright light during the day and obtaining regular exercise is also helpful. 

There are multiple other tips available to parents and information has been posted about this elsewhere. For example, the Pediatric Sleep Council has produced some tips online. A task force of the European Cognitive Behavioural Therapy for Insomnia (CBT-I) academy has also issued some tips for dealing with sleep problems during home confinement due to the pandemic. 

SC: Earlier this year The Touch Test was launched to survey public attitudes to touch. You’re now analysing data collected relating to sleep – what do you think you might find?

AG: The Touch Test was launched in January and data collection continued until March 30th. The main aim of the study was to explore people’s attitudes towards the physical experience of touch which is particularly important to establish following movements such as #MeToo. My role in the project was to think about how touch might be related to sleep. 

Of course what none of us could have realised as we designed the study was that there would be such seismic shifts in touch-experiences over the period during which we were collecting data. Certainly, as COVID-19 spread in the UK we were encouraged not to shake hands with others or even touch our own faces – and social distancing and shielding has left many without hugs from loved ones.

Other factors may have shifted over this period too, such as the way we sleep. Given the changes in the number of Covid-19 cases in the UK over the time-period of data collection, we hope to also use the data collected to tell us more about this period in time. For example, will people who provided data at an earlier date report better sleep quality (perhaps reflecting lower anxiety levels and a more standard routine) than those who provided data later in the study? Will sleep length change – perhaps increasing as the study continues, due to a reduction in commuting and fewer social events? We have ideas as to what we might find but have not yet run these analyses so don’t know for sure. 

Find out more about sleep, sleep science and Covid-19 from Professor Alice Gregory via her recent interview with The Telegraph and co-authored editorial in the Journal of Child Psychiatry and Psychology 

Nodding Off: The Science of Sleep from Cradle to Grave is published by Bloomsbury and available to buy in paperback from 21 May 2020 

 

 

‘Peace efforts’ take longer to recognise than threats, study shows

Our brains detect threats ‘automatically’ but the process of understanding conciliatory gestures is far more complex, new research from Goldsmiths, University of London suggests.

A 2019 study found that acts of terrorism are over 350% more likely to be covered by US media if the perpetrator is Muslim, which promotes negative stereotypes

Dorottya Lantos and colleagues aimed to gain a better understanding on a neurological level of how people respond to threats and intergroup conflict; for instance, conflict between people of different races or religions. 

Their work helps contribute toward our understanding of what happens in the brain when we are faced with existential threats that challenge our way of survival, be it terrorism or a global pandemic such as Covid-19. 

Evaluating and responding to a reconciliation effort triggers different areas of the brain than a threat does, their study found. It takes more cognitive effort because we have to quickly consider multiple questions and weigh up more information during the process before drawing a conclusion. 

The hope is that this kind of research can help us understand how to prevent stereotypical thinking and negative bias, with that reinforcement often coming from biased media coverage.

Their study, published in the journal Social Neuroscience on Monday 4 May 2020, looked at the parts of the brain which activate when threats are perceived and which parts are triggered into action when observing reconciliation. 

Researchers showed non-Muslim Western Caucasian participants video clips of Muslim men in traditional Middle Eastern dress making a threatening statement, offering reconciliation, or making a neutral statement. 

Using neuroimaging techniques (fMRI), the researchers observed which areas of participants’ brain were activated while watching each of the scenarios. 

Threatening statements led to increased activation in the amygdala, insula, supramarginal gyrus and temporal lobe areas of the brain. The amygdala is associated with responding to high-arousal situations and fear-related stimuli and converting this to threat and distress. The supramarginal gyrus has been associated with increased attention to specific semantic information, suggesting that threats capture the attention of participants more.

When participants watched video clips showing reconciliation efforts, the results of the fMRI showed increased activation in other areas: the prefrontal cortex, anterior cingulate gyrus, and caudate. The prefrontal cortex has been associated with forgiveness as well as impulse control, inhibition, and emotion regulation. 

These findings suggest that threat detection is a relatively automatic process, while evaluating and responding to reconciliation offers elicited responses in more cognitive regions (such as the prefrontal lobe).

Continuous exposure to media representations of certain groups as harbouring evil intentions promotes the endorsement of negative stereotypes and hostility, prior research has shown. This can lead to the escalation of intergroup conflict and violence.

Dorottya Lantos, PhD candidate in the Department of Psychology at Goldsmiths, said:

“Attention-grabbing headlines of terrorism threats have become a part of our everyday lives. Data suggests that this threat is overexaggerated by the media, compared to that warranted by the actual number of deaths caused by terrorism. A 2019 study also found that acts of terrorism are over 350% more likely be covered by the US media if the perpetrator is Muslim.

 “To prevent the escalation of intergroup conflict, we must gain a better understanding of the way individuals respond to threats and reconciliation offers from perceived dangerous outgroups.

“The COVID-19 outbreak brought with it instances of blatant hostility and xenophobic attitudes globally between different racial groups. Our research may help shed light on how we can foster intergroup peace while also inform social scientists and policy makers about the neural responses to threat posed by outgroups, and the ways in which targeting reconciliation efforts may be the most beneficial.”

‘The Neural Mechanisms of Threat and Reconciliation Efforts Between Muslims and Non-Muslims’ by Dorottya Lantos (Goldsmiths, University of London), Yong Hui Lau (University of Melbourne), Winnifred Louis (University of Queensland) and Pascal Molenberghs (Institute for Social Neuroscience, Melbourne) is published in Social Neuroscience: https://doi.org/10.1080/17470919.2020.1754287

 

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Populism loses its appeal as pandemic continues

People in Poland are becoming less susceptible to divisive populist messages as the Covid-19 crisis continues, early research from Goldsmiths, University of London suggests.

Dr Agnieszka Golec de Zavala spent six weeks collecting real-time data on the relationships between authoritarianism, national cohesion and sexual prejudice as the coronavirus pandemic spread and the Polish government enforced lockdown measures.

Her survey showed that support for right-wing authoritarianism, national cohesion and the belief that non-traditional women and sexual minorities threaten national survival by not having children, increased during the first four weeks of the pandemic, peaking at week four. 

But by the sixth week authoritarian attitudes and stigmatisation of sexual minorities had started to decrease, indicating disenchantment by the government’s divisive social politics. This decrease was accompanied by a significant drop in trust in the government, while trust towards fellow citizens during the pandemic remained the same between week four and six. This fall in support coincided with the time the government was pushing to ban abortions and sexual education and trying to rally public support for the idea. 

Typically, a crisis which increases perceptions of a threat causes a ‘conservative shift’ in populations. This so-called ‘rally around the flag’ effect can then be exploited by populist leaders. In the case of Covid-19 in Poland, data suggests that while this conservative shift happened in the early weeks of the pandemic, more people are now starting to support socially cohesive values, such as collective responsibility, and are moving toward greater co-operation and compassion.

Dr Agnieszka Golec de Zavala from the Department of Psychology at Goldsmiths suggests that people in many countries – not just Poland – are beginning to realise that populist governments have mishandled and downplayed the pandemic and it has led to increases in loss of life.

Dr Golec de Zavala says: “In Poland it is quite a dramatic change, but this can also be observed here in the UK, where the current government is being criticised more and more.”

Her data also show that as the pandemic continues the number of people who say they would vote in an upcoming presidential election decreased dramatically in week four. This indicates that they may have become disillusioned with current politics, and would not support unconstitutional measures proposed by the government – including bringing forward the election during a pandemic to be held on 10 May.

Writing on the Department of Psychology blog ahead of a formal publication of their study, Dr Golec de Zavala and PhD student Oliver Keenan, who helped with the write-up of the analyses, say that there is now widespread realisation that “despite all their rhetoric, populist leaders do not actually care about the people they claim to represent.” 

Data was collected from a final sample of 829 adults in Poland four times over a six week period, before the first coronavirus case was detected in the country (4 March), then after two, four, and six weeks. 

The first lockdown measures were introduced between 10-12 March and strengthened on the 25th.

The anti-abortion project came back onto the Polish parliament’s agenda on 7 April, to be discussed on 16 April. Governments in Hungary and the US have also aimed to extend or enact policies which attack women and sexual minorities during this time period.

PrejudiceLab, headed by Dr Golec de Zavala, continues to monitor social attitudes in Poland in the unfolding pandemic. Their results are updated every two weeks on the website https://collectivenarcissism.com/pandemic/monitor

Read more on the Department of Psychology blog

Dr Agnieszka Golec de Zavala is a Reader at the Department of Psychology and head of the PrejudiceLab. Her research covers social identity, narcissism and collective narcissism, and the psychological predictors of political conservatism among other subjects. Oliver Keenan holds a BSc (Hons) in Psychology and MSc in Psychology of Social Relations from Goldsmiths and is working toward his PhD in the PrejudiceLab, a unit in the Department of Psychology.

 

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MagicLab’s Gustav Kuhn contributed to a fascinating article on the role of magic in the age of deep fakes and augmented reality. Check it out below!

https://www.theguardian.com/culture/2020/apr/26/for-my-next-trick-dynamo-mission-to-bring-back-magic?CMP=Share_iOSApp_Other

 

 

Life lessons from laughing babies

Dr Caspar Addyman is a developmental psychologist and director of the Goldsmiths InfantLab, a unit set up to study how babies and toddlers perceive the world around them.

Caspar’s first non-fiction book, The Laughing Baby, is published on 16 April by Unbound, bringing together a decade of research into laughter and happiness from birth to childhood. We spoke to him ahead of the launch:

Sarah Cox: What’s The Laughing Baby about?

Caspar Addyman: It’s a popular science book about why babies have so much fun being babies. It’s about all the things they learn in the first two years of life and why they have a great time doing it. Friends and family help babies learn but we’re also a great big mystery in ourselves. Laughter helps babies connect to and cope with the wonderful world they’ve just joined. 

SC: How did the Baby Laughter research project start, and why you think that studying and understanding laughter in a child’s early years is so important?

CA: Back in 2011 I was a baby scientist, my brother was a comedian, and my sister had just had a baby. I suggested my brother make the baby laugh and I would explain why. That jokey suggestion planted a serious idea and so I surveyed parents all over the world to find out more about baby laughter. I watched a lot of laughing baby videos. I ran studies in the lab (with varying success). I learned that laughter and positive emotions play a central role in many aspects of early human development. It turns out it would take a book to list them all.

SC: Your work explores why babies are so happy. How can adults be more like babies? 

CA: That’s a great question. Ultimately, I think babies laugh more than adults because they are happier and there are definitely things we learn from them. Their two big secrets are authentic relationships and constant challenges. Babies are deeply loved by their families but they have a disarming quality that gets the best out of everyone. Babies don’t hold anything back because they don’t know how, and they are genuinely interested in anyone who takes the time to interact with them. We can certainly learn from that. 

Additionally, research on adult happiness has found greater life satisfaction in people who are always learning new skills or making small improvements to their daily routines. These are little victories that add up to a deep sense of wellbeing. Laughing babies bear this out, many of their squeals of delight come as they gain mastery of a new skill. 

My TEDx talk from Bratislava 2017 has more Life Lessons from Laughing Babies.

SC: You took the slightly unconventional route for an academic publishing their first research-focused book by fundraising with Unbound, achieving 215% funding. Why do you think this worked so well?

CA: I wanted to write an accessible rather than academic book but when I took the book to mainstream publishers they didn’t get it. Was this a joke book for babies? Was it a new approach to parenting? I knew from public lectures and meeting many new parents that there was a real interest in the science of early life and who can resist laughing babies? So Unbound’s crowdfunding approach was perfect for me. 

The idea is that if an author can persuade enough readers to buy the book in advance of publication that covers the costs of production and proves there’s a market. It was hard work but I am hugely grateful to all the people who supported the project and then waited patiently for me to finish writing the book. We got to 215% thanks to particularly generous support from Pampers and musician Imogen Heap – both of whom I had collaborated with previously – and from my mother, who always believes in me. 

SC: What are some of the funniest baby laughter reports or moments from your research in lab or in public surveys?

CA: I am grateful to all the families who have shared their laughter with me over the years. On my website, I keep collections of laughing babies videos and some of the memorable laughs they’ve sent me. If you need your spirits lifting I can recommend them. 

SC: What’s up next for your research?

CA: I have two projects underway at the moment. One, inspired by my colleague Dr Guido Orgs, looks at the physical synchrony between parents and babies as they play. The second being run by PhD student, Zehra Karademir, will measure how babies’ dancing changes as they grow to like songs. 

Writing the book was hard work but I’m hoping that part of the payoff will be in interesting new collaborations. In the meantime, I hope people will continue to send me videos and short “field reports” of their laughing babies. 

The Laughing Baby by Dr Caspar Addyman is published in the UK by Unbound on Thursday 16 April and in the US on May 19. It is available to order in hardcover or Kindle via Amazon

Find out more about the Goldsmiths InfantLab

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Magicians exploit your ‘lazy’ brain in pick-a-card tricks

Written by: Sarah Cox

 

When asked to choose between four playing cards on a table, two-thirds of people will choose exactly the same one, research into how magicians manipulate audiences shows.

Dr Gustav Kuhn demonstrates a card trick

A new Goldsmiths, University of London study proves what magic professionals have long known: the majority of people will pick the card in front of their hand, simply because it is the easiest one to reach.

Over centuries, magicians have developed powerful cognitive tricks to misdirect audiences or covertly influence spectators’ choice.

In pick-a-card tricks, an audience member might think they have selected a random card, but in reality, the magician has forced the card by positioning it in a specific way, increasing the chance that it will be chosen.

Led by Dr Gustav Kuhn, a research team worked with 60 participants at Tsinghua University.

They found that when four cards are lined up in a row, 66% of people will pick the third card from their left. This is significantly higher than chance, which would be 25% for each of the four cards in a four-card line-up.

However, the third card from the left bias only worked for participants who selected the card with their right hand. Those who used their left hand tended to prefer the card that was immediately in front of this hand instead.

After selecting a card, participants were asked how free they felt about their selection. Almost all participants were completely oblivious to the ‘placement force’ – they had no idea that a magician had led them to make an unconsciously biased choice through strategic physical positioning of the cards.

The research team also found that participants had a ‘moderate’ (5.5/10) sense of wonder when the prediction of the magician matched their choice of card. This was caused by people vastly underestimating the percentage chance the magician would get it right (35% compared to 66%). 

Dr Gustav Kuhn, Reader in Psychology, said: “Prior research has shown that people are more likely to select an object from the middle of a row, and they’re also more likely to select objects that are convenient to reach. Essentially, we’re quite lazy.

“We’ve shown what magicians and those who make decisions about supermarket shelf stacking, have long known: our behaviour and decisions are remarkably predictable, and driven by unconscious mental processes.”

Forcing you to experience wonder: Unconsciously biasing people’s choice through strategic physical positioning by Gustav Kuhn (Goldsmiths), Alice Pailhes (Goldsmiths) and Yuxuan Lan (Tsinghua University, Beijing, China) was published in the journal Consciousness and Cognition on Friday 28 February 2020.

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Artists drive our music download choices

Written by: Sarah Cox

Gay rights support improves in Jamaica but anti-gay sentiment grows, new research suggests

Written by  Sarah Cox
Published on 15 August 2016
Three years of intense activism and awareness raising in Jamaica have helped increase support for gay rights and reduce approval for the country’s “buggery law”, new research from Goldsmiths, University of London has found.

rainbowflag

But while support for structural prejudice, including the threat of ten years imprisonment for consensual homosexual sex, has reduced, Dr Keon West (Department of Psychology) found that personal prejudice against LGBT individuals has increased over the same period.

In Kingston, 2012, two male students at the University of Technology were caught engaging in sexual activity. One escaped, while the other was pursued across campus by fellow students calling for his death. Seeking refuge with security guards, the guards then turned on him and beat him themselves.

This was followed by a period of intense debate with many arguing that the gay student should have been killed.

But less than three years later, in August and October 2015 Jamaica’s first Pride events were held in Kingston and Montego Bay respectively. Here persons of all classes, sexualities and gender expressions, including straight allies, could gather in a safe environment.

How did this change happen? Between 2012-15 organisations such as AIDS-Free World, Quality of Citizenship Jamaica, the Jamaica Anti-Homophobia Stand and J-FLAG engaged in activities intended to increase LGBT visibility in the country, call attention to prejudice and encourage politicians to take prejudice more seriously.

Social psychologist Dr West – an expert in anti-LGBT prejudice in Jamaica – analysed the results of two surveys from 2012 and 2015 of almost 1,900 people, to see how attitudes have changed.

The surveys show that, over the 3-year period, heterosexual Jamaicans reduced their support for the country’s “buggery law” and became more supportive of gay rights. However, they simultaneously became more likely to say they do not trust or like gay people, or that they would threaten, hurt and insult them.

(Dr Keon West, Lecturer in Psychology)

Dr West’s research into changes in attitudes appears in The Journal of Sex Research.

He explains: “What should we make of these findings? Taken together my conclusion is that these changes in structural and personal prejudice suggest that heterosexual Jamaicans now respect LGBT Jamaicans more, but like them less.”

Dr West believes that this pattern of results could be expected considering the strategies recently used by pro-gay rights groups in Jamaica. These have focused on protest and visibility – strategies that tend to increase support for legal rights and equality.

However, there has been a relative scarcity of strategies involving friendly, cooperative interactions – strategies that promote positive attitudes. Jamaican gays and lesbians continue to be killed, and reactions to some pro-homosexual protests have been negative.

“This does not indicate a failure of Jamaican pro-gay activism,” Dr West adds. “All organisations have limited resources and anti-gay prejudice is a multi-faceted problem. The focus on legal equality is showing some signs of success.

“But it’s also important to achieve more positive attitudes and a reduction in day-to-day violence and negative behaviours. With those goals in mind, it might be time to accompany the closed fist with a bit more of the open palm.”

“Jamaica has been described as the most homophobic place on earth, but consensual gay sex remains also remains illegal in 75 other countries.

“Jamaica can be seen as a testing ground for comparable anti-gay nations; like those in Jamaica, activists in these strongly anti-gay countries must select strategies that best suit their challenging social climate.”

‘Jamaica, 3 years later: Effects of intensified pro-gay activism on severe prejudice against lesbians and gay men’ is published in The Journal of Sex Research.

Read more on Gay Times


Do you want to Get in2science? Read on!

Written by   Maria Cristina Cioffi

Published  12 August, 2016

Disproportionately few students enrol in a university degree from low-income families; 16% of those entitled to free school meals go on to enrol at university compared to 96% of those from independent schools. In 2010, a few people decided to do something about it and founded in2scienceUK. This organization is a charity that gives A-level students from low income backgrounds the opportunity to take part in a summer placement working alongside scientists.

Around 150 research groups in the UK offered placements this year and with over 5000 applications, competition for places is fierce. None more so than for our placement, which is the only psychology department placement across the whole scheme. For the past four years, James Moore and I have been hosting a student from the programme for one week, and this year, like all the others, it’s been a great week.

Cristina with one student on the programme

Each year, we look at the research currently going on in the department and arrange for the student to watch and help out with some of the experiments. We also talk them through our research topic and get them to shadow us in our daily work. Throughout this, the student doesn’t just get involved in the psychology research, but they have the chance to discuss their ideas, aspirations and their future. The students we have hosted have told us that the placement inspired them and the in2scienceUK data speaks to that effect, with 75% of participating students going on to enrol in a university degree and 59% enrolling onto a degree at a Russell group university.

This experience is of great value not only for the students, but also for us hosting them. Each time, I am asked questions that challenge me to reflect and discuss aspects of my work that I tend not think about. Their fresh, naïve look on my work turns out to be very useful.

With such all-round rewarding internships, I hope other researchers, departments and donors will support in2scienceUK. We look forward to continuing our support next year.

If you want further information, go to their website: in2scienceuk.org.

James Moore is on Twitter @Neurocog


Goldsmiths’ Psychology Department collaborates with The International Centre for Research in Human Development.

Written by Tom Bloniewski

Published on 9 August 2016

TomTom’s PhD research investigates the way in which anxiety taxes cognitive resources and the main study is run on a sample of twins. This allows for one of a kind design in which we can address the covariation of different neural responses across twins and to see how the general variation in neural activity is partitioned into genetic and environmental sources. Here he talks about a recent collaboration at the Tomsk State University in Russia.

 

At the beginning of 2016 Professor Yulia Kovas was awarded the Erasmus+ Learning Mobility Grant which gives students and staff the flexibility of collaborating with institutions abroad. Tom Bloniewski, PhD student, was the first one to be awarded a share of this grant to travel to Tomsk State University (TSU, Russia). The exchange program allowed Tom to participate in numerous projects such as the Neural Correlates of Anxiety in Cognitive Performance (in collaboration with Psychological Institute in Moscow), The Spatial Ability Project (in collaboration with King’s College London), and Genetically Informative Longitudinal Investigation of Early Mental Development of Children (in collaboration with Université Laval, Canada).

Tom was involved in large-scale data collection and management, got the opportunity to teach statistics to postgraduate students, and to run the journal article seminars. Collaborating with TSU gave him exposure to cutting-edge research techniques including genetically sensitive neuroimaging data analyses.The grant awarded to Tom resulted in a presentation during the International Society for Intelligence Research 2016 conference organised by Yulia Kovas in Saint Petersburg.

You can ask Tom about his research through his Twitter feed: @AnxCog


BPS Undergraduate Research Assistantship: Ageing with Autism Traits: Examining Ageing in the Broad Autism Phenotype.

Written by: Gavin R. Stewart

Published: 1 July 2016

Over the summer Gavin has been given the opportunity to continue his development as both a researcher and a student. He’s been working with Dr Rebecca Charlton over the past year on a variety of her studies in the GoldAge Lab into both typical and atypical ageing, primarily with a focus on the Broad Autism Phenotype (BAP). Now, he has been successful with his application to the British Psychological Society Undergraduate Research Assistantship Scheme, which gives a grant allowing a second year student to design and conduct a full research project over their summer break. Here he says more about it.

The aim of this study is to improve our understanding about how the BAP affects the ageing process. The BAP describes a set of characteristics related to the ability to understand the thoughts and feelings of others. These characteristics are common in Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), however they also occur at a subclinical level in the typical population and relatives of those with ASD.

Very little is currently known about the impact of ageing on the BAP/ASD. Previous research conducted by the GoldAge Lab has indicated that some abilities that decline during ageing are also affected in ASD, such as difficulties with memory, organising information and the ability to understand the thoughts and feelings of others. We want to further examine this overlap, which will give us further insight into both typical ageing and ageing with ASD.


Time expands after blinking: research explores dopamine and time perception link

Written by Sarah Cox

Published on 6 Jun 2016

One of the first studies to explore moment-to-moment fluctuations in individuals’ perception of time found that time is perceived to last longer after we spontaneously blink.

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Researchers in the Department of Psychology at Goldsmiths, University of London found that temporary increases and decreases in dopamine levels within the striatum (a brain region known to be involved in time perception) are associated with moment-to-moment changes in how we perceive time.

Previous studies have demonstrated that spontaneous eye blinking is a reliable biomarker of dopamine levels in the striatum, and in the Goldsmiths study led by Dr Devin Terhune participants had a tendency to overestimate the length of short intervals after they had blinked.

The effect was present for short intervals of half a second, and longer intervals of two seconds, and occurred with both auditory and visual intervals. These short intervals are important as they are closely tied with a range of psychological and motor functions including fluctuations in conscious states.

Evidence from pharmacology, neuroimaging and genetics indicates that striatal dopamine – a neurochemical that plays an important role in a range of cognitive functions – influences time perception.

But the study by Dr Terhune and colleagues is one of the first to explore the way individuals’ perception of time changes from one moment to the next – a characteristic that could influence how we perform in contexts requiring precise timing of the environment.

The researchers say that increases in dopamine availability may speed up dopaminergic pulses in the brain that are triggered when we start to time an event. As a consequence, there is an earlier onset of the timing mechanism, or more frequent accumulation of timing-related information, resulting in the relative overestimation of time.

Fluctuations in dopamine availability may underlie variations in the characteristics of the dopaminergic pulse and introduce variability in the perceived duration of time, the researchers explain.

As is the case with time perception, spontaneous blinking is altered in clinical conditions characterised by dopamine levels below or above normal levels, such as Parkinson’s disease and schizophrenia. Drugs designed to manipulate dopamine levels can also affect blinking.

Dr Terhune, an expert in consciousness, hypnosis and time perception, concludes: “Relating dopamine to interval timing within individuals helps clarify why our perception of time varies from one moment to the next and may provide insights into fluctuations in consciousness more broadly.”

‘Time dilates after spontaneous blinking’ by Devin Terhune, Jake Sullivan and Jaana Simola was published in Current Biology on 6 June 2016.


 

Study shows drawing and maths ability link in children is down to general intelligence

 

Written by Sarah Cox
 
Published on 18 Apr 2016
 

Behavioural geneticists from Goldsmiths, University of London have published new research exploring the link between a young child’s ability to draw a human figure and their skills in maths later in life.

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Drawing is an activity enjoyed by children worldwide, but it reflects more than artistic talent: researchers have found that early drawing expresses a child’s cognitive competence, and predicts children’s later mathematical achievement and cognitive abilities.

Four-year-olds who performed well in a ‘draw a person’ test appeared to be better at maths at age 12 than four-year-olds whose drawings weren’t as accurate. This ability to draw the human figure predicted mathematics achievement eight years later, when the children were 12.

Young children show large differences in their ability to draw the human figure, with some children drawing all the human features very accurately and others only scribbling marks on a page.

Genes or environment?

Because the children who produced the drawings were twins, researchers were able to explore to what extent genes and environments explained differences in drawing ability between children.

They found that while genes partly explained these differences in drawing ability between young children, environmental factors were the main source of influence on young children’s drawing performance.

The researchers had originally predicted that four-year-olds who scored highly in drawing an accurate human figure might also demonstrate higher achievement in mathematics eight years later because of several features that maths shares with figure drawing – such as proportionality, appropriate use of space, and symmetry.This association between early drawing and school mathematics achievement was mostly explained by genetic factors (82%).

The same factors influence general intelligence

Contrary to expectations, researchers found that the relationship between drawing a human figure at four and how good you are at mathematics at 12 isn’t specific.

While a genetic link between early drawing ability and later maths ability was found, it can be explained by genetic and shared environmental factors that also influence general intelligence – not just maths.

However, the researchers found a small specific genetic link between early human figure drawing ability and teachers’ ratings of children’s mathematics ability.

About 20% of the genes that contributed to the relation between preschool drawing ability and mathematical ability when the same children were 12 were not shared with general intelligence.  This shows that some of the genes that are responsible for differences between children’s drawing performance at four years of age are also implicated in mathematical skills later on in life.

The specific genetic link between drawing and mathematics was not found when mathematical ability at age 12 was measured using formal online tests of mathematical ability.

Lead author Margherita Malanchini (Department of Psychology) suggests that the more positive teacher-ratings in maths for children good at drawing might have more to do with specific characteristics like the child’s creativity and motivation.

The study’s results are consistent with previous findings demonstrating that the link between drawing ability and general intelligence 10 years later is largely explained by genetic factors.

The study supports the “generalist genes” theory, which proposes that most genes associated with common learning abilities and disabilities are general, rather than specific to each domain. Genes that influence one area of learning (for example, drawing an accurate human) are largely the same as those that influence other areas (such as maths ability and intelligence).

Gender difference and stability in ability

The researchers also found that at age four, girls performed only marginally better than boys at drawing a human. The study also found stability in drawing ability between ages four and four and a half – a six month period that seems short but is a large portion of a child’s life at this key developmental stage.

Children who showed good drawing skills at four were also good in their drawing production when they produced another drawing six months later, at four and a half.

The study used data from 4,999 monozygotic and 9,581 dizygotic twins from the Twins Early Development Study (TEDS), based at King’s College London. The human figure drawings were assessed both with the established McCarthy scale, and the researchers’ own criteria: the newly developed Drawing Maturity Scale, which taps into a number of different factors such as maturity of lines, realism and aspects of spatial cognition.

“The links we’ve observed between drawing, mathematics and general intelligence could to some extent also be related to motor development,” the authors explain.

“For example, drawing scores may reflect maturity of lines that in turn depend on motor skills. Recent neuroimaging research suggests that partly overlapping cortical and subcortical brain regions are associated with the development of both general cognitive ability and motor skills.”

‘Preschool Drawing and School Mathematics: The Nature of the Association’ was published in Child Development on Sunday 17 April.


Social perception expert wins Spearman Medal for outstanding research

 

Written bySarah Cox
 
Published on: 15 Apr 2016
 

Goldsmiths University of London’s Dr Michael Banissy has been awarded this year’s Spearman Medal from the British Psychological Society in recognition of his outstanding body of published work.

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Reader in Psychology Dr Banissy is a leader in the study of conscious vicarious perception – where individuals consciously experience the same sensation they see another feeling.

He has led developments in our understanding of these experiences by conducting pioneering studies on mirror-touch synaesthesia (where individuals experience touch on their own body when seeing touch to others) and developing the existing neurocognitive model.

He has also used this understanding to explore the general mechanisms of interpersonal representation and social processing we all use.

Additionally, he has made significant contributions to other areas of psychology, including face perception, emotion processing, social cognition, and memory.

Dr Banissy said: “I am delighted to have been awarded the Spearman Medal and feel extremely honoured to be amongst the list of winners. I’d like to thank the BPS for the award and Professor Andrew Bremner for nominating me.

“This achievement would not have been possible without the help of some excellent colleagues, collaborators, and lab members. I am very grateful to them all. I would particularly like to thank my mentors, Professors Vincent Walsh and Jamie Ward, for their insight and support from the start.

 

My lab is currently working on a number projects that seek to determine mechanisms that contribute to our ability to determine social signals displayed by others, how these abilities vary between us, and means by which they can be improved.

Professor Jamie Hacker Hughes, President of the Society, said: “The Spearman Medal is one of the British Psychological Society’s most prestigious awards and is given to early career researchers, such as Dr Banissy, whose work is excellent in quality and influential in nature. Dr Banissy receives my wholehearted congratulations.”

The Spearman Medal is awarded annually by the Society’s Research Board to recognise a body of outstanding published work produced by a psychologist within eight years of the completion of his or her PhD.

The British Psychological Society is the representative body for psychology and psychologists in the UK. It is responsible for the development, promotion and application of psychology for the public good.


Urban living and access to schooling shapes how kids perceive size, research indicates

Written by: Sarah Cox

Published on: 7 Apr 2016
 

Children who have grown up in urban environments fall for a well-known optical illusion more often than kids from remote cultures – because access to schooling has changed the way we look at pictures, a Goldsmiths, University of London study suggests.

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Researchers from the Department of Psychology showed children from 3-years-of age the Ebbinghaus illusion on a computer screen.

Participants were from remote Himba villages in Northern Namibia, or from a town called Opuwo – the nearest urban development to the Himba. Data from UK residents, collected in an earlier study, was also analysed.

The illusion shows two circles placed near to each other, with one surrounded by large circles and the other surrounded by small circles. For many people, the central circle surrounded by large circles will appear smaller than the central circle surrounded by small circles, even when this is not actually the case.

In UK children this illusion develops in early childhood. When judging which of the target circles was larger, 9-10 year-old UK kids were fooled by the illusion and made more mistakes than younger UK children.

But the Himba children were not much fooled at all until they were of secondary school age.

From 9-10 years, traditional Himba children were much more immune to the illusion than British kids, correctly stating more often which circle was larger. This age group of Himba children also beat the illusion more often than the urban Namibian children who had received formal schooling.

In fact, the study authors found that the number of years urban Namibian children were at school was the main factor predicting how much children were fooled by the illusion.

The 50 Himba children who took part (from a total of 336 participants) were from a community of semi-nomadic herders who have limited contact with Western culture and artefacts. Their ages had to be estimated, as the community does not usually keep birth records.

Why does this happen?

The researchers believe that Western children have developed to process visual context (in this case, the circles surrounding the central circle) differently to Himba children because of the way they’ve engaged with pictures and print as they’ve grown.

The study showed that while UK children are processing context by the age of 9 or 10, Himba children are completely unaffected by it.

It’s likely that cluttered urban environments impact on the development of a child early in life, but pictorial and printed materials become particularly relevant in middle-childhood around the age of 9-10 – the same point at which a divergence between Himba and UK children was observed in the Ebbinghaus illusion test.

Lead researcher Professor Andy Bremner, Head of Psychology at Goldsmiths, explains:

We believe that living in a cluttered urban environment and going through formal schooling plays a role in changing the way we involve context in our visual perceptions.

“There are some well-known differences in the way different cultures perceive visual shapes and patterns, but our study goes further in providing an account of how these differences emerge through the interaction of nature and nurture in early development.

“We found that development of differences between the cultural groups was complete by about 10-years of age, which helps us hone in on one particular explanation.

“Rather than being due to differences in how we focus our attention – something that continues to develop in later childhood – we believe that cross-cultural differences in the Ebbinghaus illusion are due to how we take context into account when we look at the world.

“Perceiving and understanding context isn’t a universal human feature, but something that develops quite differently depending on where or how you grow up.”

‘Effects of Culture and the Urban Environment on the Development of the Ebbinghaus Illusion’ by Andrew J. Bremner, Jan de Fockert, Karina J. Linnell, Jules Davidoff (Goldsmiths), Martin Doherty (University of East Anglia) and Serge Caparos (Universite de Nimes) is published in the journal ‘Child Development’.


Big Data and Open Access projects win British Academy Rising Star Engagement awards for Goldsmiths psychologists

Written by: Sarah Cox

Published on: 30 Mar 2016

Goldsmiths, University of London psychologists Dr Sophie von Stumm and Dr Caspar Addyman have been awarded Rising Star Engagement research awards 2016 by the British Academy.

 

Now in its second year, the British Academy’s Rising Star Engagement (BARSEA) Scheme provides funding of up to £15,000 to 29 distinguished Early Career Researchers to assist their career development through organising interdisciplinary events for other Early Career Researchers.

Dr Caspar Addyman is a developmental psychologist with research interests in learning, laughter and behaviour change in infants. A member of the Department of Psychology’s InfantLab, he joined Goldsmiths in 2015 from Birkbeck.

Open Access is one step in a bigger journey that researchers have been slow to take, Dr Addyman explains. His award of £10,682 will allow him to organise a one-day workshop with a strong practical element that will inspire and educate researchers across all social sciences disciplines on how to do better.

“Our research is publically funded and is supposed to have an impact on the world,” he explains. “I strongly believe that the whole process should be open to more scrutiny and outputs shared more freely. Open Access is just one small part of this. It also requires sharing code, data and materials to improve reproducibility.

There should be greater public engagement before, during and after research is conducted. And we should write and communicate without jargon in venues beyond traditional journals and monographs.

“The workshop will be led by experts already doing these things. The support of the British Academy and of Goldsmiths as hosts is hugely important in getting these ideas out beyond STEM into the wider research community. It is, of course, free and open to everyone.”

As a lecturer in psychology and head of the Hungry Mind Lab, Dr Sophie von Stumm’s research focuses on individual differences in cognitive ability and personality traits. She has received £14,801 from the British Academy for work empowering early career researchers to collect ‘big data’ with innovative assessment tools.

Recent technological advances have led to a vast number of research tools that enable collecting ‘big’ high-quality data. However, many early career researchers lack expertise and resources to apply these tools in their own studies, which creates a loss for their individual careers and for science in general.

Dr von Stumm and her Hungry Mind Lab team will organise a showcase event at which established scientists, technology companies, and media and crowd-sourcing experts will introduce early career researchers to the latest assessment tools from different scientific disciplines.

She explains that it’s an exciting time for early career researchers in the social and behavioural sciences: “Modern technology has opened an unprecedented wealth of possibilities to produce innovative and high-quality research – but this also comes with challenges. What are the latest methods available for collecting ‘big data’? How do we best engage the public to participate in research? And who can we consult on modern assessment technology?”

Find out more about this year’s BARSEA award winners on the British Academywebsite.


 

New research to explore intentionality biases in interpreting human behaviour.

Written by Siân Jones
 
Published on 17 Mar 2016
 
 

The Leverhulme Trust has offered Goldsmiths, University of London a research project grant for  three years, for £164,459. The project will be directed by Dr James Moore,  and will look at why we seem to prefer intentional over unintential accounts of human action.

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“The ability to distinguish between intentional and unintentional movements is integral to our social lives. Judging someone else’s action to be intentional carries with it the assumption that they are also responsible. Not only is this important in terms of the day-to-day navigation of our social world, it is also important in our systems of law, where criminal responsibility rests on judgements of intentionality”, explains Dr. Moore.

“Interestingly, recent evidence suggests that people usually prefer intentional explanations to unintentional or situational ones. This inclination towards intentional attributions has been termed “the intentionality bias”.

“Our project will investigate this bias, looking at the psychological and neural processes responsible for it. In doing so I hope to shed more light on the nature of intention attribution in humans”.


Isolation and poor mental health in over-60s with elevated autistic traits is cause for concern, research suggests

Written by: Sarah Cox

Published on 11 Mar 2016

Older adults with mild autistic traits are much more likely to experience anxiety, depression, and difficulty ‘getting things done’ than adults without such traits, research by Goldsmiths, University of London indicates.

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With autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in the elderly an under-explored area, and older individuals with ASD difficult to recruit to studies, the psychologists believe that studying people who have mild autistic traits could inform our knowledge on aging and autism.

Previous research shows that 20-50% of family members of an individual with ASD display behaviours characteristic of ASD; these traits also exist in the general population and are known as the broad autism phenotype (BAP).

About the study

Adults aged 61-88 years were asked to report traits common in ASD such as social problems, ‘aloofness’, appropriate use of language in social situations, as well as ‘executive functions’ – including the ability to plan and organise behaviour.

The 66 participants were then categorised into two groups: 20 adults with the BAP and 46 adults without the BAP.

Individuals in the BAP group, even after controlling for age, education, sex and health problems, exhibited more real world ‘executive function’ problems, and reported lower levels of social support, and higher rates of depression and anxiety than the control group.

Older adults in the BAP group were likely to have a smaller social network, fewer close friends, and less frequent social interactions than those in the control group.

The study was led by Dr Rebecca Charlton with MSc student Jessica Budgett (Department of Psychology, Goldsmiths) and Dr Gregory Wallace (Department of Speech and Hearing Sciences, The George Washington University), and is the first investigation into the BAP in the context of older adulthood, and its association with mental health difficulties.

Why is this important?

“Only recently has there been a focus on adulthood and aging in ASD so the knowledge on it is woefully small,” explains Dr Charlton.

“The first individuals diagnosed with ASD in the 1940s are now reaching old age so we hope there will be more opportunities for study.

“But there have long been difficulties in recruiting older individuals with ASD to take part in research. Studies such as ours – which utilises individuals with BAP traits instead – may be less impeded by difficulties, but can still inform knowledge on aging and ASD.

“A combination of a rapidly growing elderly population, and increases in adulthood ASD diagnoses poses a growing social and financial challenge. Greater knowledge is important for identifying risk factors that might affect the management and planning of services for this elderly population.

A survey by the National Autistic Society conducted in 2008 found that only 8% of individuals with ASD had most of their support from professionals, with 46% having most support provided by their families.

“With an aging ASD population, as individuals start to lose family members, we could begin to see more devastating isolation, loneliness and depression, an increased risk for dementia and the onset of both physical and social impairments.”

Participants were recruited via the University of the Third Age in Ealing, two West London GP surgeries, and by posting information on online forums for older adults and relatives of those with an ASD diagnosis, such astalkaboutautism.org.uk.

Aging and Autism Spectrum Disorder: Evidence from the Broad Autism Phenotype will be published in the journal Autism Research on Friday 11 March.


New research to ask if toys work best in helping UK and immigrant kids’ friendships

Written by Sarah Cox

 
Published on 10 Mar 2016
 

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Psychologists at Goldsmiths, University of London will start new research this year to find out whether just three minutes of play with diverse Playmobil toys could encourage friendly interaction between UK-born children and recent arrivals from overseas.

A study led by the same researcher indicates that wheelchair-using Playmobil™ models can help children better imagine friendships with wheelchair-using peers.

Dr Sian Jones and Professor Adam Rutland (Department of Psychology) will test whether British children are better at imagining a friendship with an immigrant child if Playmobil™ is used, compared with other methods that don’t use physical stimuli, and simply ask them to imagine friendly contact.
 
With a small grant scheme award from the British Academy and Leverhulme Trust, the researchers will work, over a year, with 5-9 year olds in London’s culturally diverse schools.
 
By bringing imagined contact with kids from other cultures into a 3D realm, where children use Playmobil ™ children in a Playmobil ™ school to imagine interacting in a physical space, it’s hoped that their ideas about friendship will be better stimulated, and this will then transfer into a real-life setting.
 
The toys are expected to increase the ease by which children imagine positive interactions and then significantly improve their reactions to immigrants when they interact in the classroom or playground

Participants will be asked to play with the toys just once, for three minutes.

To confirm the toys’ effectiveness, the children will then be tested on their interaction with the profiles of immigrant children online, and whether they would fairly distribute resources, such as stickers, in a game with them.

Dr Jones’ research over the past few years has suggested that interacting in a Playmobil ™ playground improves friendship intentions towards disabled children. Kids get used to a Playmobil ™ toy figure in a wheelchair and see that model to be as socially important and capable of playing as the other models who do not use wheelchairs.

“A government drive towards inclusion in schools opens up opportunities for dialogue and engagement between groups, yet at the same time presents schools with new challenges, including dealing with bullying on the grounds of disability or ethnicity,” explains lead researcher Dr Jones.
 
“Everyone knows that encouraging interaction between different social groups improves children’s attitudes about others who they might see as ‘different’ to themselves. What we’ve shown, and hope to show with our new study, is that an intervention as cheap and simple as diverse plastic toys could be a great way to encourage that interaction, and really benefit school cohesion.”
 
Read reports on the BBC News website and TES online.